Journal Articles

The Mismeasure of Man(agement) and its Implications for Leadership Research

2003, The Leadership Quarterly

Scott B. MacKenzie, Philip M. Podsakoff, Nathan P. Podsakoff, Jeong Yeong Lee


The purpose of the present review is to examine the potential problems caused by measurement model misspecification in the field of leadership. First, we discuss the conceptual differences between the four types of measurement models that have been used in leadership research and provide a set of criteria that could be used to decide upon the appropriate model. Following this, we examine the extent of measurement model misspecification by conducting a review of the leadership literature and applying these criteria. Next, we discuss the potential consequences of measurement model misspecification on conclusions made about the structural relationships between constructs. Finally, we discuss the implications of our study for leadership research.


Podsakoff, Philip M., Scott B. MacKenzie, Nathan P. Podsakoff, and Jeong Yeong Lee (2003), “The Mismeasure of Man(agement) and its Implications for Leadership Research,” The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 615-656.

Kelley School of Business

Faculty & Research