“Comparing Formal and Informal Lobbying Practices in China: The Capital’s Ambivalent Embrace of Capitalists,
2009, China Information
The marketization of China's economy and the attendant need for a supporting regulatory framework have resulted in extensive lobbying by Chinese and foreign industry. The central party-state has adopted an ambivalent posture toward this development. On the one hand, the government has encouraged the development of industry associations, public hearings, and comment-and-response periods for draft laws and regulations to routinize public policy consultations. On the other hand, the central party-state is deeply concerned about the political consequences of permitting greater social activism, and hence, it continues to constrain the maturation of these same formal institutions and processes. As a consequence, informal lobbying practices, such as direct lobbying and manipulation of the media, have become more prominent vehicles for industry involvement in the policy process.
Kennedy, Scott (2009), “Comparing Formal and Informal Lobbying Practices in China: The Capital’s Ambivalent Embrace of Capitalists,” China Information, Vol. 23, No. 2 July, pp. 195-222.