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Indiana University Bloomington

Operations & Decision Technologies

Kelley Advantage

Our Operations, Analytics and Information Systems faculty have written many of the definitive textbooks in the areas of operations, data analysis, database management, networking, and Excel modeling.

Recent Publications

Journal Articles

Expectation confirmation: An examination of three competing models

2008, Organizational Behavior and Human Dec Proc

S. Brown, V. Venkatesh, J. Kuruzovich, Anne P. Massey


We discuss three theoretical models from met expectations research in the fields of organizational behavior and consumer psychology. Based on the fundamental arguments in the models, we term these models: disconfirmation, ideal point, and experiences only. We present three-dimensional graphical and analytical representations of the models, with satisfaction being a function of expectations and experiences. We tested the models in the context of a new information system implementation in an organization, with expectations, experiences, and system satisfaction measured for both ease of use and usefulness, the focal constructs of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). We found that an experiences only model in which expectations had no measurable effect best explained the data for ease of use. The results for usefulness indicated a modified version of the experiences only model in which the positive effect of experiences becomes slightly stronger—i.e., more positive—as expectations increase.


Brown, S., V. Venkatesh, J. Kuruzovich, and A. P. Massey (2008), "Expectation confirmation: An examination of three competing models," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 105, No. 1, pp. 52-66.