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Indiana University Bloomington

Operations & Decision Technologies

Kelley Advantage

Our Operations, Analytics and Information Systems faculty have written many of the definitive textbooks in the areas of operations, data analysis, database management, networking, and Excel modeling.

Recent Publications

Journal Articles

Augmenting a Conceptual Model with Geo-spatio-temporal Annotations

2004, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering

Vijay Khatri, Sudha Ram, Richard T. Snodgrass


While many real-world applications need to organize data based on space (e.g., geology, geomarketing, environmental modeling) and/or time (e.g., accounting, inventory management, personnel management), existing conventional conceptual models do not provide a straightforward mechanism to explicitly capture the associated spatial and temporal semantics. As a result, it is left to database designers to discover, design, and implement—on an ad hoc basis—the temporal and spatial concepts that they need. We propose an annotation-based approach that allows a database designer to focus first on nontemporal and nongeospatial aspects (i.e., "what”) of the application and, subsequently, augment the conceptual schema with geospatiotemporal annotations (i.e., "when” and "where”). Via annotations, we enable a supplementary level of abstraction that succinctly encapsulates the geospatiotemporal data semantics and naturally extends the semantics of a conventional conceptual model. An overarching assumption in conceptual modeling has always been that expressiveness and formality need to be balanced with simplicity. We posit that our formally defined annotation-based approach is not only expressive, but also straightforward to understand and implement.


Khatri, Vijay, Sudha Ram, and Richard T. Snodgrass (2004), “Augmenting a Conceptual Model with Geo-spatio-temporal Annotations,” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 11, November, pp. 1324-1338.