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Indiana University Bloomington

Operations & Decision Technologies

Kelley Advantage

Our Operations, Analytics and Information Systems faculty have written many of the definitive textbooks in the areas of operations, data analysis, database management, networking, and Excel modeling.

Recent Publications

Journal Articles

Cognitive Fit between Conceptual Models and Internal Problem Representations: The Case of Geospatio-Temporal Conceptual Schema Comprehension

2006, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication

Vijay Khatri, Iris Vessey, Sudha Ram, V. Ramesh


Geospatio-temporal conceptual models provide a mechanism to explicitly represent geospatial and temporal aspects of applications. Such models, which focus on both "what" and "when/where," need to be more expressive than conventional conceptual models (e.g., the ER model), which primarily focus on "what" is important for a given application. In this study, we view conceptual schema comprehension of geospatio-temporal data semantics in terms of matching the external problem representation (that is, the conceptual schema) to the problem-solving task (that is, syntactic and semantic comprehension tasks), an argument based on the theory of cognitive fit. Our theory suggests that an external problem representation that matches the problem solver's internal task representation will enhance performance, for example, in comprehending such schemas. To assess performance on geospatio-temporal schema comprehension tasks, we conducted a laboratory experiment using two semantically identical conceptual schemas, one of which mapped closely to the internal task representation while the other did not. As expected, we found that the geospatio-temporal conceptual schema that corresponded to the internal representation of the task enhanced the accuracy of schema comprehension; comprehension time was equivalent for both. Cognitive fit between the internal representation of the task and conceptual schemas with geospatio-temporal annotations was, therefore, manifested in accuracy of schema comprehension and not in time for problem solution. Our findings suggest that the annotated schemas facilitate understanding of data semantics represented on the schema.


Khatri, Vijay, Iris Vessey, Sudha Ram, and V. Ramesh (2006), “Cognitive Fit between Conceptual Models and Internal Problem Representations: The Case of Geospatio-Temporal Conceptual Schema Comprehension,” IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. 49, No. 2, June, pp. 109-127.