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Indiana University Bloomington


Kelley Marketing

Kelley marketing faculty have served as consultants and trainers for IBM, 3M, Dow, Diebold, ExxonMobil, Publix, National City, Cummins, Microsoft, Touchstone Energy, J.D. Power and Associates, and many other organizations.

Recent Publications

Journal Articles

The Horizontal/Vertical Distiniction in Cross-Cultural Consumer Research

2006, Journal of Consumer Psychology

Sharon Shavitt, Ashok K. Lalwani, Jing Zhang, Carlos Torelli


We argue for the importance of a relatively new cultural distinction in the horizontal (valuing equality) or vertical (emphasizing hierarchy) nature of cultures and cultural orientations.  A review of the existing cross-cultural literature is presented suggesting that, although the contribution of the horizonal/vertical distinction is sometimes obscured by methods that conflate it with other dimensions, its impact is distinct from that associated with individualism-collectivism.  We present studies that highlight several sources of value for the horizontal/vertical distinction--as a predictor of new consumer psychology phenomena and as a basis for refining the understanding of known phenomena.  Results support the utility of examining this distinction for the understanding of personal values, advertising and consumer persuasion, self-presentational patterns, and gender differences.  Methodological issues in studying the horizontal/vertical distinction are also discussed.


Shavitt, Sharon, Ashok K. Lalwani, Jing Zhang, and Carlos Torelli (2006), "The Horizontal/Vertical Distinction in Cross-Cultural Consumer Research," Journal of Consumer Psychology, 16 (4), 325-342.