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Indiana University Bloomington

Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Activity
 

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists in developing a classification system for domains of educational activity. The three domains are cognitive, affective and psychomotor. Within the cognitive domain, Bloom and his colleagues recognized six levels of cognition, from the recall of information to more abstract levels such as synthesis and evaluation. Most classroom activities require that students only think at the lowest possible level, the recall of information.


Once you have identified your own goals for classroom learning, you can begin to develop strategies and activities to engage students on all six levels of cognition. These levels of learning can be used to develop tests, classroom discussions and assignments. When designing a classroom activity, use the following chart to ensure that your instructions for the activity match with your goals. If you want your students to analyze, for example, use words such as compare and contrast.

 

Level 1 Knowledge
define
identify
label
state
 
list
match
recall
recite
 
name
report
select
 
Level 2: Comprehension
describe
generalize
paraphrase
give an example of
 
estimate
classify
explain
predict
 
illustrate
summarize
state in your own words
translate
 
Level 3: Application
determine
chart
implement
prepare
 
use an approach
develop
choose an appropriate procedure
 
apply a principle
solve a problem
relate
demonstrate
 
Level 4: Analysis
discriminate
infer
 
compare
contrast
 
relate
design
 
Level 5 : Synthesis
plan
organize
create
 
generate
appraise
critique
 
judge
solve
formulate
 
Level 6: Evaluation
weigh
evaluate
combine
 
conclude
support
defend
 
appraise
compare
 

For more information:

Bloom's Taxonomy: Model Questions and Key Words