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Indiana University Bloomington

Department of Finance

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Research and Publications

Journal Articles

New Low-Frequency Spread Measures

2009, Journal of Financial Markets

Craig W. Holden


I develop new spread proxies that pick up on three attributes of the low-frequency (daily) data: (1) price clustering,(2)serial price covariance accounting for midpoint prices on no-trade days, and (3) the quoted spread that is available on no-trade days. I develop and empirically test two different approaches: an integrated model and combined models. I test both new and existing low-frequency spread measures relative to two high-frequency benchmarks (percent effective spread and percent quoted spread) on three performance dimensions: (1) higher individual firm correlation with the benchmarks, (2) higher portfolio correlation with the benchmarks, and (3) lower distance relative to the benchmarks. I find that on all three performance dimensions the new integrated model and the new combined model do significantly better than existing low-frequency spread proxies.


Holden, Craig W. (2009), “New Low-Frequency Spread Measures,” Journal of Financial Markets, Vol. 12, pp. 778-813.

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