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Indiana University Bloomington


The Kelley Advantage

The department is home to the authors of Managerial Economics and Business Strategy and Games and Information: An Introduction to Game Theory, two of the nation’s leading textbooks in the field.

Research and Publications

Journal Articles

Dominant Monies, Special Drawing Rights, and Supranantional Bank Money

2009, World Economics

Michele U. Fratianni, Pietro Alessandrini


The current international monetary system (IMS) is fragile because the dollar standard is rapidly deteriorating. The dual role the dollar as the dominant international money and national money cannot be easily reconciled because the US monetary authorities face a conflict between pursuing domestic objectives of employment and  inflation  and maintaining the international public good of a stable money. To strengthen the IMS, China has advocated  the revitalization of the Special Drawing Rights (SDRs). But SDRs are neither money nor a claim on any international institution; are issued exogenously without any consideration for countries’ external imbalances; and can activate international monies only though bilateral transactions. The historical record of SDRs as international reserves is altogether unimpressive. We propose instead the creation of a supernational bank money (SBM) within the institutional setting of a clearing union. This union would be a full-fledged agreement by participating central banks on specific rules of the game, such as size and duration of overdrafts, designation of countries that would have to bear the burden of external adjustment, and  coordination of monetary policies objectives and at expense of the maintenance of the international public good.


Pietro Alessandrini and Michele U. Fratianni, "Dominant Monies, Special Drawing Rights, and Supranantional Bank Money," World Economics, 2009, Vol. 10, N. 4: 45-67.


dominant currencies, international monetary system, Special Drawing Right, supernational bank money.